Addiction | 6 min read
Medically Reviewed By
On August 28, 2022
On December 17, 2021
Countless potentially addictive drugs are being sold or abused in every corner of the country daily. While most people would be quick to name some of the more well-known narcotics, such as heroin, methamphetamine, and cocaine, other drugs are used by millions daily that are rarely given a second thought, like nicotine and alcohol.
There is little difference, for example, between the chemical dependence and addiction that results from heroin or meth use and the addiction that results from nicotine or alcohol use. It is still a chemical dependence that changes the user’s brain chemistry and physical brain structure. However, that being said, some drugs have a far greater potential to create that addiction than others.
Many prescription medications, for example, are designed to minimize or eliminate the potential for addiction or dependence. However, even with doctors and physicians being mindful of the addictive nature of medication that they prescribe, there is still the possibility of falling into dependence, such as with opioid medications.
With such a huge number of drugs out there and a broad spectrum of addictive potential, it can seem like a lot to be on guard for, and it certainly is. The NIDA estimates more than 20 million Americans are diagnosed with drug addiction in 2020. With this ever-present danger, knowing what the most dangerous drugs are and how to spot addiction to them can mean the difference between life and death.
The main psychoactive chemical in tobacco cigarettes, nicotine, is often overlooked as a very highly addictive drug. Moreover, since cigarettes are so widely available and easy to obtain, there is also the constant temptation to relapse, making recovery from a nicotine addiction a constant struggle for many.
Nicotine is fast-acting, often taking effect within 10-15 seconds of ingestion, and can last several hours. It is a relatively powerful stimulant that causes increases in blood pressure and heart rate, increased focus, and a dopamine release that calms the smoker.
Smoking even a few cigarettes can lead to nicotine withdrawal symptoms, which often include headaches, stomach aches, irritability, and anxiety. In many cases, nicotine withdrawals can be done alone, but with medical supervision, it can be far more comfortable. In many cases, nicotine withdrawal and detox can be completed in less than two weeks.
Methamphetamine is a very potent and affordable stimulant related to the drugs used to manage ADD & ADHD in children and adults. It is often found in a coarse crystal form that is either snorted, injected, or smoked by the individual. Methamphetamines produce an intense high that is often immediately addicting for the user.
Methamphetamine also drastically changes brain chemistry and neurotransmitter levels, which can create an unbelievably strong chemical dependency. This dependency results in a strong use-reward cycle that many people find difficult or impossible to escape without help. When they try to quit without help, the intense withdrawal and detox process often causes a near-immediate relapse.
Meth use changes the brain structure in significant ways over long periods, including alterations to areas of the brain responsible for learning, memories, emotions, and the sensation of pleasure. The mechanisms that regulate and release dopamine can also become irreparably damaged, sometimes preventing the individual from enjoying things they used to enjoy.
Detoxing from methamphetamines will often take approximately 2-3 weeks to get through the initial and acute withdrawal stages. This means most of the physical symptoms should have tapered off, though in many cases dealing with heavy use or long periods of addiction, some symptoms can linger for months or years.
Heroin is the most addictive drug, as ¼ of all people who try it end up addicted. One of the reasons heroin is so dangerous is that it leads to sedation, which can cause a coma or death for anyone that takes too much.
Heroin use disorder is a huge problem in the United States. There are roughly 600,000 Americans that are addicted, some of them as young as 11 years old.
Another reason heroin is so dangerous is that it is often cut with other drugs to make the product stretch. Quite often, fentanyl is mixed in with heroin, regularly causing people to overdose.
Essentially the same drug, cocaine and crack are derived from the cocaine found in the coca plant. While it was used for countless years as a traditional supplement, industrialization soon made it a highly addictive stimulant concentrate that can be snorted, injected, or smoked. Cocaine powder is a fine white powder that is often snorted, while crack looks like small yellow rocks that are smoked.
The effects of cocaine and crack begin quickly, with cocaine taking only a few minutes while crack is nearly instantaneous. The high is often short-lived, but it creates a strong use-reward cycle with the intense rush of the stimulant effects and the euphoria it induces.
The energy, euphoria, and social nature of the drug often overshadow the risks. The risks include dangerously elevated heart rate and blood pressure, heart palpitations, seizure, stroke, and death.
While it is often considered an American pastime, having a drink frequently indicates a deeper problem that many people ignore. Since so many social activities in the US are centered around drinking or featuring drinking as a significant draw, such as sporting & music events, the chances of becoming addicted to alcohol have never been better.
Alcohol is an incredibly powerful depressant that profoundly affects the central nervous system and the brain. It makes you feel good by forcing dopamine levels to rise, which acts as a mood-enhancer for a little while but can reverse if the drinking continues, resulting in a drastic change in mood.
Once the individual consumes alcohol, it takes effect almost immediately, slowing the communication between the brain and the nervous system and triggering a dopamine release. Eventually, the user will begin to feel the depressant effects, with nerve function slowing, slowing heart rate, a drop in blood pressure, and significant reductions across all aspects of cognition, coordination, and motor skills.
Long-term abuse of alcohol can result in damage to nearly every system in the body. It can leave the individual with liver damage, kidney damage, heart and circulatory system damage, skin problems, brain damage, and even coma and death.
When it comes to drug use, most people either ended up getting addicted to something they started out using recreationally or were self-medicating and lost control of things. Either way, some signs can indicate that someone has an addiction, including:
If you think someone you care about may have a drug problem, it might not be so easy to notice that from the outside. Unless there are obvious physical or behavioral changes, there’s a good chance you don’t pick up on a loved one’s addiction for a long time. Some signs to look for if you suspect someone has a drug addiction include:
When you realize you have an addiction, figuring out how to get help can seem challenging. The good news is that many addiction treatment facilities can help you get through the detox and withdrawals, allowing you to move on to the next part of your life.
With the help of experienced addiction professionals, you’ll be set up for success with a clean, detoxed body, free from drugs and, thus, from the cravings that keep you in the vicious cycle of addiction. After that, you can utilize other therapy sessions to help determine the root cause of your substance use. Once you know the why behind your addiction, you can truly get the help you need.
If you or a loved one are seeking substance abuse treatment in Connecticut or New York, reach out to Ascendant today. Our detox and rehabilitation programs will help you break free from addiction and build the foundation for a healthy, sober lifestyle.
Here at Ascendant New York, we understand the importance of having access to accurate medical information you can trust, especially when you or a loved one is suffering from addiction. Find out more on our policy.