Heroin Withdrawal Symptoms, Timeline & Detox Process
February 14, 2019
February 14, 2019
Addiction to heroin is becoming more widespread than ever before. Due, in large part, to the over-prescribing and misuse of prescription opiates, the use of heroin – which is an illegal form of opiate – is on the rise. Prescription opioid addicts may find that their legal supply of the drug has run dry, prompting them to seek out more dangerous ways of ensuring that the effects that their body depends on can continue. It is at this point that heroin is introduced.
Heroin epidemics are not new. Heroin addictions have been a concern since the late 19th century, when the drug was first developed as a solution for morphine addiction. There have been three heroin epidemics since that time. The first two were in the mid-20th century. The third epidemic is now.
Studies show that heroin usage and addiction tripled during the early 21st century. Opiates, such as heroin, are now the leading substance in contributing to overdose death in America. Nearly 100 people die, every day, from the toxicity. And, while the number of hospital visits for prescription opioid overdoses have declined over the past few years, admissions for heroin related overdose have increased.
In spite of it being derived from a natural substance, the effects of heroin on the brain and body are severe. After introducing the substance to the body – through inhalation, ingestion, or injection – the effects are nearly immediate. Pleasurable sensations, such as euphoria, pain relief, and a sense of peace are accompanied by detrimental effects. These less desirable effects include confusion, decreased breathing and heart rate, and nausea. When the dosage is high, the negative consequences can also include irregular heartbeat; a lowered body temperature; lack of consciousness; and death.
The symptoms of withdrawal from heroin can be similarly distressing. Once the effects of the heroin wear off, the addicted person begins to crave another dose within hours. Without another dose, the user begins to feel restless; the body begins to ache; and intestinal discomfort ensues. The heart rate can become too rapid, and the individual can begin to feel extremely anxious. An addicted person may begin to sweat profusely, and will have trouble falling asleep. Depression and fatigue can set in, resulting in lack of mental clarity and a tendency toward social isolation.
When attempting to push through withdrawal symptoms on one’s own, the heroin user can expect to spend at least 10 days in a state of discomfort:
With appropriate detox treatment, not only can the severity of the discomfort be reduced, but the time needed for recovery can be shortened. Most treatment facilities are designed to address both the physical, and the psychological, symptoms of withdrawal, and can provide a safe and comfortable environment for recovery.
Heroin detoxification treatment programs vary in the services that they offer. Some providers practice a procedure known as rapid detox, during which the patient is anesthetized and receives intravenous medications to flush the system of the dependence on the drug. This rapid approach claims to reduce the symptoms of withdrawal to only a matter of hours, much of which time the patient is asleep. There are varying reports of the success and dangers of this type of treatment, so due diligence is called for when researching the possibility of engaging in this procedure.
More common detoxing programs span 3-7 days. During the first few days, the patient receives medications which mitigate the effects of opiate withdrawal on the body. Many approved medications for treating heroin withdrawal work by introducing a less potent opiate – such as methadone or buprenorphine – into the body, and then implementing a system of gradual tapering from dependence. Recent advances in pharmaceuticals for detox have resulted in treatment medications which do not contain opiates, and result in less tendency toward secondary dependence. These newer medications can be taken orally, and work by calming the hypertension effects of withdrawal on the body.
As the medications delivered during detox do their job, qualified treatment facilities are available to help the recovering addict to manage the intense emotions that tend to arise. Not only does the effect of the heroin withdrawal contribute to increased anxiety, but the user has to simultaneously learn to cope with emotional experiences that have previously been blunted by the presence of the chemical. For this reason, treatment facilities which focus on the entire experience – physical, mental, and emotional – tend to be preferred. Programs which offer continuous patient care through a diverse team of professionals provide the best environment for successful, full, recovery.
After initially detoxing from heroin, studies have shown that continued success in abstaining from the drug is difficult. Many users will, unfortunately, relapse into addiction. Those most successful in making the detox permanent are those who develop self-determination, and who find relief from psychological concerns through developing healthier coping mechanisms. The alarming rate of relapse highlights the importance of ongoing psychological treatment and support following the short-term experience of detoxing.